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Dr Anthony Gandy

Visiting Professor

The London Institute of Banking & Finance Faculty Profiles

Tony works in credit union supervision at the Bank of England. He has been a financial journalist, investment banker, consultant and academic. He is keenly interested in the intersection of Banking Strategy with forces for change, primarily Technology and Regulation. Tony has published widely on this from trade press articles to academic journal papers and a number of books. He is also a Visiting Professor at Ulster University.

Expertise
Fintech, Regulation, Strategy, Business Economics, Business and Economic History.

Tony-Gandy-LIBF-Faculty

PRA/Bank of England, bank supervision, Manager: Current role
The London Institute of Banking and Finance, Postgraduate Programmes, Associate Director / Reader: 2008 – 2015.
Technology Planning and Strategy Ltd (a financial technology strategy consultancy which ran for 15 years), Founding Director: 1995 - 2008.
Daiwa Europe Limited/Daiwa Securities: 1993 - 1995.

  • Business Development and Strategy, Manager.
  • Corporate Finance Institution, Manager.

The Banker, an FT publication, Editor for Research and Technology (remained a Contributing Editor for 12 years after leaving): 1991 - 1993.
University of Minnesota, Tomash Research Fellow in the History of Data Processing: 1989 – 1990.
Racal plc, Electronic Component Purchasing Officer: 1986 - 1987.

Education
PhD, London School of Economics, University of London: 1993.
BSc (Hons), Economics, University of Wales Aberystwyth: 1986.


Professional Qualifications
PGCHE, The London Institute of Banking & Finance: 2013.
Securities and Investment Authority Registered Representative (Futures and Options) regulatory exam: 1995.

Tony has undertaken many projects for clients all linked to technology and finance. Clients have included BT, Hewlett Packard, MasterCard, EDS, Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship and many others.

Books
Gandy, A. (2013). The early computer industry: Limitation of scale and scope. Palgrave MacMillan.
Brookbanks, M, Gandy, A and Pourquery, P (2003) Operational Resilience - The Art of Risk Management. Financial World Publishing/IBM (funded by IBM).
Gandy, A. (2000) Customer Relationship Management - Profit Through Knowledge. Chartered Institute of Bankers/Financial World Publishing (funded by Accenture and Siebel).
Gandy, A. (1999) Banking Strategies Beyond 2000. Chartered Institute of Bankers/Financial World Publishing (funded by Oracle Corp).

  • Republished in the USA by the American Management Association.
  • Republished in the USA by Fitzroy Dearborn (a Routledge Imprint).
  • Republished in Australia by Prospect Media.

Gandy, A. (1999) The Network Bank. Financial World Publishing.
Gandy, A and Chapman, C (1996) The Electronic Bank - Banking and IT in Partnership. Chartered Institute of Bankers/Financial World Publishing (funded by BT, IBM, HP, AT Kearney and EDS).

  • Republished in the USA by Fitzroy Dearborn (a Routledge Imprint) as “Information Technology and Financial Services: The New Partnership”.


Contributions to edited books
Gandy, A. (2015) Mobile Banking, A Business Models Approach. In: Harrison, T ed. Marketing Companion to Financial Services. Routledge.
Gandy, A. (1990) 4 short chapters. In: Robbins, K ed. (1990) The Blackwell Biographical Dictionary of British Political Life in the Twentieth Century. Blackwell.


Peer Reviewed Journals
Gandy, A. and Edwards R. (2018) Enterprise vs. product logic: the industrial reorganisation corporation and the rationalisation of the British electrical/electronics industry. Business History.
Gandy, A. and Edwards R. (2017) Enterprise Logic vs. Product Logic: The Development of GE's computer product line. Business History.
Laffey, D. Gandy, A and Lowe, B. (2015). Online Retail Financial Services in a Changing World. Services Industry Journal. 35 (10).
Gandy, A., Edwards, R.E. (2014) Navigating the M-Form: Product Scope Review and the Development of the Computer at General Electric. Business History. 56 (8).
Gandy, A (2014) Product strategy choices – Honeywell and RCA mainframe computer product strategies 1960-1971. Business History. 56 (3).
Gandy, A. (2014) Case method and teaching of banking strategy: a case study on case studies. Journal of Professional Scholarship in Banking and Finance 2.
Gandy, A. (2009) First-generation Internet banking – bankers' perceptions of the threat. International Review of Entrepreneurship. 7 (1).
Laffey, D, Gandy, A. (2009) Comparison websites in UK personal financial services. Journal of Financial Services Marketing. 14 (2): 173-186 (this paper was also profiled in the Bowne Brief for Investment Management Professionals in 2010).
Laffey, D and Gandy, A. (2009) Applying Stabell and Fjeldstad's value configurations to E-commerce: A cross-case analysis of UK comparison websites. Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 18 (4): 192-204.
Gandy, A. (1994) The Entry of Established Electronics Companies into the Early Computer Industry in the UK and USA. Business and Economic History. 23 (1): 16-21.
Gandy A, (1988) Changing Patterns of Success in the world electronics industry. Electronic Engineering. 60 (735): 132-142.


Working Papers/discussion papers
Durkin, M. Cummins, D., Laffey, D., McKeown, N., and Gandy, A. (autumn 2016) “The SME–Bank Relationship: Exploring the Impact of Crowdfunding at Start-up”. Ulster University and Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.
Gandy, A. (2013) “The supply of banking lending to UK businesses during the financial crisis 2008-2010: a frontline survey”. Ifs Working Papers Series 2013/01.
Gandy, A. (2011) “Developing the business banking peer-to-peer market – a discussion paper introducing the Invest in Britain Market”. Private circulation only.
Gandy, A (2005) “The Debit Card Market”. Private circulation, but copies available. Written on behalf of MasterCard.


Commercial Management Reports
Examples of industry management reports, each report was 15,000 words long and most were based on primary industry research.
Gandy, A. (July 2005) Pressure to Perform – Business Intelligence and their use in Banking. Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (April 2004) Hidden Value: understanding the impact of regulatory change. Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (September 2003) A Risky business? A survey of industry preparation for Basel II. Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (April 2003) What's in IT for me? Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (November 2002). Smart Revolution: the impact of chip card on retail finance. Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (July 2002) Thank, Adapt, Win: Operational Resilience in Financial Services. Financial World, supplement, pp1-32.
Gandy, A. (April 2002) Activity-Based Management. Financial World, supplement, ppI-XXXII.
Gandy, A. (July 2001) Customer First: A study of CRM strategies in European Financial Services. Financial World, pp19-50.
Gandy, A. (November 2000) E.Marketplaces: A threat or Opportunity. Financial World, pp19-50.
Gandy, A. (July 2000) New Business Model; the North American Experience. Financial World, pp19-50.
Gandy, A. (April 2000) Profit Through Knowledge. Financial World, pp19-50.
Gandy, A. (October 1999) Will a computer in every home ruin you channel delivery strategy? Financial World, pp19-50.
Gandy, A. (April 1999) Understanding Customer Relationship Management. Financial World, pp11-42.
Gandy, A. (October 1998) Channel Delivery Strategies. Chartered Banker, pp21-52.
Gandy, A and Brierley, C. (October 1997) Electronic Integration: the new global investment bank. Chartered Banker, pp11-42.


Writing for professional magazines
Numerous articles in a number of trade press magazines, including The Banker, Banking Technology, Chartered Banker, Windows on Finance, Financial World, Banking World and others. Examples include:
Gandy, A. (February/March 2017) Don’t worry be “appy”: mobile finance. Financial World.
Gandy, A. (October/November 2016) Play the Game, or not – gamification of banking interfaces. Financial World.
Gandy, A. (June/July 2016) A tough act to topple – lessons from supermarket banks for new challengers. Financial World.
Durkin, M, Gandy, A. Laffey, D. Cummins, D. and Fearon, C. (February/March 2016) The old versus the new: a discussion on SME financing by crowdfunding sites and banks. Financial World.
Gandy, A. (August/September 2015) The Natives Are Restless. Financial World – note the “Natives” refers to “Digital Natives”.
Gandy, A. (July/August 2012) Can anyone solve the problems of the euro? Financial World.
Gandy, A. (July 2007) The Smart Route for High Volume Trades. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (September 2004) The Power to Report. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (May 2004) Regulatory strategy is sadly lacking. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (April 2004) What's directing modernisation. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (May 2003) Time to Change Core Banking Systems. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (May 2002) The CRM Matrix. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (January 1999) Making a Merger Pay. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (February 1997) Community link-up. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (October 1995) Internet Enmities. The Banker.
Gandy, A. (October 1995) “Start” moves to stay ahead. Chartered Banker.
Gandy, A. (March 1993) The impersonal touch (banks without staff?). The Banker.

Professional Activity
Contributor to the New Economic Papers HIS Blog: http://nephist.wordpress.com/.


Book reviews
Castronova, E. (2014) Wildcat Currency. Yale. Review appeared in Financial World (2014) .
Bátiz-Lazo, B., Carles Maixé-Altés, J., Thomes , P. eds., (2012) Technological innovation in retail finance: international historical perspectives. Routledge. Review appeared in appeared in the Economic History Review (2014) and had the unexpected consequence of the editors approaching me to join them in a new book on financial technology with the goal of reaching publication in 2015/16).
Dow, A (2011) Pegasus - The Heart of the Harrier. Business Archives (2012).


Membership
The London Institute of Banking and Finance: 2002.
Association of Accounting Technicians, Digital Advisory Panel.
University of Nottingham, Centre for Risk, Banking and Financial Services, Past Senior Associate.

The London Institute of Banking & Finance, Award for Teaching Excellence in the Postgraduate Programme: 2017.

Conference presentations
Recent industry conferences (Tony has spoken at dozens such events over the years):
Market Force Conference on Digital Banking, Chair: 2017.
19th Market Force Conference on The Future of Retail Banking, Chair: 2016.
Gandy, A (2014): “Engaging members through education” Association of Financial Mutuals Annual Conference 2014.
Gandy A (2010): Examining the evolving regulatory regime: anticipating the impacts. 13th Institute of Economic Affairs conference on The Future of Retail Banking 2010.


Conference papers
Peer reviewed conference papers
Edwards, R., Gandy, A. (2016) “Product, Enterprise and Intervention: A Historical Approach to Industrial Policy in Britain” British Academy of Management 2016, Newcastle, UK – management and business history stream.
Durkin, M. Cummins, D., Laffey, D., McKeown, N., Gandy, A. (2015) “Exploring the potential role for crowd-funding in SME start-up financing: a comparative study of the perspectives of Bank Executives and SME Owner-Managers”. Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, UK.
Lewis, K., Gandy, A. (presenting), Dalziel, N. (2015) “Is Relationships Marketing Dead? An Empirical Investigation into SME - Bank Relationships” British Academy of Management 2015, Portsmouth, UK – retail stream.
Edwards, R., Gandy, A. (2015) “Industrial Policy, Knowledge and Government Intervention in Britain c1919 – c1970” British Academy of Management 2015, Portsmouth, UK – management and business history stream.
Gandy, A. (presenting), Laffey, D. (2013) “Why do financial services firms use comparison websites?” British Academy of Management 2013, Liverpool, UK – e.commerce stream.
Laffey, D., Lowe, B., Gandy, A., (2011) “Social Media: Past, Present and Future. A Review of the Literature”. 15th Annual AMS World Marketing Congress 2011, Reims, France.

Other recent academic conferences/seminars include (non-peer reviewed):
Durkin, M. Cummins, D., Laffey, D., McKeown, N., and Gandy, A. (March 2017) “The SME–Bank Relationship: Exploring the Impact of Crowdfunding at Start-up”. Ulster University and Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship – this was the formal presentation of the project’s findings to an audience or mainly SME owners, advisors and bankers.
Edwards, R., Gandy, A. (2016) “Product, Enterprise and Intervention: A Historical Approach to Industrial Policy in Britain” Management History Research Group.
Edwards, R., Gandy, A. (2016) “Product, Enterprise and Intervention: A Historical Approach to Industrial Policy in Britain” Management History Research Group.
Gandy, A. (2013): Why General Electric left the computer hardware industry - the impact on competitiveness caused by the migration from "soft" -form to a "hard" M-form structure. Management History Research Group.
Gandy A. (2012): Concentric diversification - the limits to economies of scope in dynamic industries. Management History Research Group 2012.



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