Dr Anthony Gandy

Dr Anthony Gandy

Visiting Professor

Anthony has a PhD from LSE and has worked in and around financial services sector for thirty years including financial journalism (The Banker), investment banking (Daiwa Securities), bank regulation (Bank of England), banking education (LIBF) and as a consultant running his own fin tech consultancy.

He has authored many books including Banking Strategies Beyond 2000, Information Technology & Financial Services: The New Partnership, and, as a part of his academic output The Early Computer Industry: Limitations of Scale and Scope as well as hundreds of articles, reports and academic papers on corporate strategy, bank technology and strategies in the electronics, computing and banking sectors.

He is a Visiting Professor at Ulster University as well as at The London Institute of Banking & Finance.


Banking, fintech, regulation, electronics and corporate strategy


Visiting Professor at Ulster University: 2017 – present
Bank of England, Manager: 2017–19
Bank of England, Bank Regulator: 2017–19
Technology Planning and Strategy, Founder and Director: 1995–2007 and 2015–17
LIBF, Associate Director and Reader: 2007–15


PhD, Philosophy, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE): 1992
BSc, Economics, Aberystwyth University: 1986

Professional qualifications

PGCHE, The London Institute of Banking & Finance: 2013
Securities and Investment Authority Registered Representative (Futures and Options) regulatory exam: 1995


Tony has undertaken many projects for clients all linked to technology and finance, including BT, Hewlett Packard, MasterCard, EDS, Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship and many others.


‘Enterprise vs product logic: the industrial reorganisation corporation and the rationalisation of the British electrical/electronics industry’, with R Edwards, Business History: 2018
‘Enterprise logic vs product logic: the development of GE's computer product line’, with R Edwards, Business History: 2017
‘Don’t worry be “appy”: mobile finance’, Financial World: February/March 2017
‘Play the Game, or not – gamification of banking interfaces’, Financial World: October/November 2016
‘A tough act to topple – lessons from supermarket banks for new challengers’, Financial World: June/July 2016
‘The old versus the new: a discussion on SME financing by crowdfunding sites and banks’, with M Durkin, D Laffey, D Cummins and C Fearon, Financial World: February/March 2016
The SME–bank relationship: exploring the impact of crowdfunding at start-up’, with M Durkin, D Cummins, D Laffey, and N McKeown for Ulster University and Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship: 2016
‘The [digital] natives are restless’, Financial World: August/September 2015
‘Online retail financial services in a changing world’, with D Laffey, and B Lowe, Services Industry Journal: 2015 
'Mobile banking, a business models approach' in Marketing Companion to Financial Services: 2015 
‘Navigating the M-form: product scope review and the development of the computer at General Electric’, Business History, with RE Edwards: 2014
‘Product strategy choices – Honeywell and RCA mainframe computer product strategies 1960-1971’, Business History: 2014
‘Case method and teaching of banking strategy: a case study on case studies’, Journal of Professional Scholarship in Banking and Finance 2: 2014
The early computer industry: Limitation of scale and scope, 2013
‘The supply of banking lending to UK businesses during the financial crisis 2008–2010: a frontline survey’, Ifs Working Papers Series: 2013
‘Can anyone solve the problems of the euro?’ Financial World: July/August 2012
‘Comparison websites in UK personal financial services’, with D Laffey, Journal of Financial Services Marketing: 2009 and profiled in the Bowne Brief for Investment Management Professionals: 2010
‘First-generation internet banking – bankers' perceptions of the threat’, International Review of Entrepreneurship: 2009
‘Applying Stabell and Fjeldstad's value configurations to e-commerce: a cross-case analysis of UK comparison websites’, with D Laffey, Journal of Strategic Information Systems: 2009
‘The smart route for high volume trades’, The Banker: July 2007
‘Pressure to perform – business intelligence and their use in banking’, supplement in Financial World: 2005
‘Hidden Value: understanding the impact of regulatory change. supplement in Financial World: 2004
‘The power to report’, The Banker: September 2004
‘Regulatory strategy is sadly lacking’, The Banker: May 2004
‘What's directing modernisation’, The Banker: April 2004
‘Time to change core banking systems’, The Banker: May 2003
Operational resilience: the art of risk management, with M Brookbanks and P Pourquery: 2003
‘A risky business? A survey of industry preparation for Basel II’, supplement in Financial World: 2003
‘What's in IT for me? supplement in Financial World: 2003
‘The CRM Matrix’, The Banker: May 2002
‘Smart revolution: the impact of chip card on retail finance’, supplement in Financial World: 2002
‘Thank, adapt, win: Operational resilience in financial services’, supplement in Financial World: 2002
‘Activity-based management’, supplement in Financial World: 2002
‘Customer first: a study of CRM strategies in European financial services’, supplement in Financial World: 2001
Customer relationship management: profit through knowledge: 2000
E.Marketplaces: a threat or opportunity’, supplement in Financial World: 2000
‘New business model: the North American experience’, supplement in Financial World: 2000
‘Profit through knowledge’, supplement in Financial World: 2000
Banking strategies beyond 2000 (republished in the USA and Australia): 1999
The network bank: 1999
‘Making a merger pay’, The Banker: 1999
‘Will a computer in every home ruin you channel delivery strategy?’ supplement in Financial World: 1999
‘Understanding customer relationship management’, supplement in Financial World: 1999
‘Channel delivery strategies’, Chartered Banker: 1998
‘Electronic Integration: the new global investment bank’, with C Brierley, Chartered Banker: 1997
‘Community link-up’, The Banker: 1997
The electronic bank: banking and IT in partnership, with C Chapman, republished in the USA as Information technology and financial services: the new partnership: 1996
‘Internet Enmities’, The Banker: 1995
'“Start” moves to stay ahead’, Chartered Banker: 1995
‘The entry of established electronics companies into the early computer industry in the UK and USA’, Business and Economic History: 1994
‘The impersonal touch (banks without staff?)’, The Banker: 1993
Four short chapters in The Blackwell Biographical Dictionary of British Political Life in the Twentieth Century: 1990
‘Changing Patterns of Success in the world electronics industry’, Electronic Engineering: 1988

Professional activity 

Contributor to the New Economic Papers, HIS Blog

Book reviews

Wildcat Currency
by E Castronova, for Financial World: 2014
Technological innovation in retail finance: international historical perspectives edited by B Bátiz-Lazo, J Carles Maixé-Altés and P Thomes, for Economic History Review: 2014 
The editors then approached me to join them in a new book on financial technology
Pegasus the heart of the harrier, by A Dow, for Business Archives: 2012


The London Institute of Banking and Finance: 2002
Association of Accounting Technicians, Digital Advisory Panel
University of Nottingham, Centre for Risk, Banking and Financial Services, Past Senior Associate


The London Institute of Banking & Finance, Award for Teaching Excellence in the Postgraduate Programme: 2017

Conference presentations

Chair, Market Force Conference on Digital Banking: 2017
Chair, 19th Market Force Conference on The Future of Retail Banking: 2016
Engaging members through education, Association of Financial Mutuals Annual Conference: 2014
Examining the evolving regulatory regime: anticipating the impacts, 13th Institute of Economic Affairs conference on The Future of Retail Banking: 2010

Conference papers peer reviewed

With R Edwards, Product, enterprise and intervention: a historical approach to industrial policy in Britain, British Academy of Management: 2016
With M Durkin, D Cummins, D Laffey, and N McKeown, Exploring the potential role for crowd-funding in SME start-up financing: a comparative study of the perspectives of bank executives and SME owner-managers, Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference: 2015
With K Lewis, and N Dalziel, Is relationships marketing dead? An empirical investigation into SME-bank relationships, British Academy of Management: 2015
With R Edwards, Industrial policy, knowledge and government intervention in Britain c1919 – c1970, British Academy of Management: 2015
With D Laffey, Why do financial services firms use comparison websites? British Academy of Management: 2013
With D Laffey and B Lowe, Social media: past, present and future – a review of the literature, 15th Annual AMS World Marketing Congress: 2011

Conference papers non-peer reviewed

With M Durkin, D Cummins, D Laffey, and N McKeown, The SME–bank relationship: exploring the impact of crowdfunding at start-up, Ulster University and Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship: 2017
With R Edwards, Product, enterprise and intervention: a historical approach to industrial policy in Britain, Management History Research Group: 2016
Why General Electric left the computer hardware industry: the impact on competitiveness caused by the migration from 'soft' -form to a 'hard' M-form structure, Management History Research Group: 2013
Concentric diversification: the limits to economies of scope in dynamic industries, Management History Research Group: 2012

Visit Tony Gandy's LinkedIn profile